Does an antibacterial milk protein reduce infection in premature babies?
Lactoferrin, a protein found in human and cows milk, does not appear to protect premature infants from late-onset infections. When given to babies born before 32 weeks, their risk of acquiring infections, such as sepsis, was virtually the same as those in the control group, about 30%.
Late-onset infections, those occurring 72 hours or more after birth, are a significant cause of illness and even death in newborns. Premature babies are particularly vulnerable. This very large UK based NIHR funde...
A commonly-used antidepressant doesn’t improve recovery after stroke
The antidepressant fluoxetine works no better than placebo to reduce disability after a stroke, lowering hopes that had been raised by other smaller studies.
After a six month trial including more than 3,000 adult stroke patients recruited at 103 UK hospitals, researchers concluded that fluoxetine should not be used to promote recovery from stroke-related disability, or routinely prescribed to prevent depression after stroke.
Several smaller studies and animal trials had found promising result...
Radiotherapy benefits some men whose prostate cancer has spread to their bones
Adding radiotherapy directed at the prostate to hormone treatment for all men with metastatic prostate cancer makes no difference to overall survival. However, when men with a limited number of metastases confined to the bones of the pelvis and spine are treated with radiotherapy to the prostate, their survival improves.
The standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer is anti-androgen hormone therapy, and this is sometimes combined with chemotherapy. Radiotherapy of the prostate ...
Joint infection after hip replacement is linked to some risk factors that could be modified
Ten years of National Joint Registry data show that many factors may increase the risk of joint infection following hip replacement. Less than 1 in 1,000 people on average needed revision surgery for infection per year.
Several modifiable patient factors increased risk, such as obesity and diabetes. Using ceramic components, and approaching surgery from the back rather than the side of the hip, may slightly reduce infection risk.
This NIHR-funded study analysed registry data for 623,253 hip re...
Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening for women is unlikely to be a fair use of NHS resources
Nearly 4,000 women would need screening to prevent one death, and a third of aneurysms detected wouldn’t have influenced the individual woman's health or lifespan.
Aneurysm rupture is a life-threatening emergency with low survival. Men are known to be at higher risk of an aneurysm and are offered screening at age 65 to allow early diagnosis of aneurysms large enough to warrant surgical repair. However, a third of deaths from rupture are in women.
This NIHR-funded study is the first t...
Patient-centred care for multimorbidity improves patient experience, but quality of life is unchanged
A patient-centred intervention in general practice for people with multiple chronic conditions, based on recommended best practice, had no effect on patient quality of life or burden of illness and treatment. Patients were, however, more likely to report being satisfied with their care.
An increasing number of people in the UK are living with multimorbidity, defined as two or more long-term health conditions. NICE recommends a comprehensive approach to care, tailored to the patient’s need...
Better pain relief for women in labour
Women in labour, who had the short acting strong painkiller remifentanil, rather than pethidine, had less need for further pain relief. Only 19% of women given remifentanil received a subsequent epidural compared with 41% given pethidine. Remifentanil was given intravenously, using a patient-controlled delivery device, and pethidine given by intramuscular injection.
This NIHR-funded study is the first large trial to compare intravenous remifentanil (administered via a patient-controlled deliver...
Keyhole surgery is more effective than physiotherapy for hip impingement
Keyhole surgery to reshape the joint surfaces in people with hip impingement improves hip-related quality of life more than physiotherapy.
In hip impingement, there is a painful restriction of the smooth movement of the ball of the femur inside the cup (acetabulum) of the pelvis. It mainly affects younger, active people. Observational studies have supported the use of keyhole surgery (arthroscopy), but there was a lack of high-quality evidence. This NIHR-funded study is the first trial to compa...
The most effective antidepressants for adults revealed in major review
Antidepressants are effective to treat moderate to severe depression in adults. Five antidepressants appear more effective and better tolerated than others.
A major review of 522 antidepressant trials found that all of the 21 drugs studied performed better than placebo, in short-term trials measuring response to treatment. However, effectiveness varied widely.
Researchers ranked drugs by effectiveness and acceptability after eight weeks of treatment. Several drugs were more effective and were ...
Additional therapy helps social recovery from first episode psychosis
Social recovery therapy increases structured activity, such as work, education or sport, by eight hours per week for people with severe social withdrawal following a first episode of psychosis. This cognitive behavioural type of treatment was added to other early interventions and might be particularly useful for those lacking motivation or living with other conditions that prevent them engaging with mental health services.
This NIHR-funded trial included 154 young adults with first episode of ...