The benefits of commonly used blood pressure and cholesterol lowering treatment can last 16 years
Fewer deaths from stroke had occurred in people who had high blood pressure treated with amlodipine, a calcium-channel blocker, compared to atenolol, 10 years after the end of a large trial. People with high blood pressure who took statins were less likely to die from cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease or stroke than those taking a placebo.
This study followed over 7,000 UK patients who had taken part in a clinical trial of blood pressure and cholesterol-lowering treatments between ...
The best dose of aspirin for cardiovascular protection may depend on body weight
Low dose aspirin only appears to be effective at preventing stroke or heart attack for people weighing less than 70kg, while higher doses are better for people who weigh over 70kg.
Researchers analysed data from 13 trials of aspirin for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, totalling over 115,000 participants. They found that 75 to 100mg aspirin only benefitted people who weighed less than 70kg, while only those who weighed 70kg or more benefited from doses of 325mg or above...
Telemedicine programme can prolong life for heart failure patients
A comprehensive programme of daily telemedicine monitoring and 24-hour access to a physician-led hotline can reduce the number of deaths and the time spent in hospital, among patients with heart failure.
A year-long study of 1,571 patients who had been admitted to hospital with heart failure within the past 12 months found that those assigned to daily telemonitoring, monthly health education and telephone support from specialist staff, were 30% less likely to die than those assigned to usual ca...
Oral steroids do not help hearing for children with glue ear
Oral steroids do not improve hearing, symptoms, or quality of life in children with glue ear. This NIHR-funded trial compared oral steroids with placebo for 389 children with glue ear, also called otitis media with effusion, and found no significant effect on those outcomes.
Glue ear is when the middle ear fills with fluid, often following an ear or respiratory infection. The fluid makes hearing more difficult. It usually resolves within three months without treatment, but if it lasts longer, t...
Peer support may reduce readmissions following mental health crises
People discharged from mental health crisis teams are less likely to re-enter acute services within a year if they receive self-management support. The support in this study was provided by a peer worker, someone with experience of mental illness. The peer worker used a workbook to provide information and talk through recovery goals. The study compared this with those who had received the workbook by post.
Participating adults had a range of mental illnesses and had been managed by six crisis r...
Albumin administrations can prolong survival for some people with liver disease
Weekly intravenous albumin can prolong the life for people with liver cirrhosis and uncomplicated ascites. Over about 18 months, 17% of patients given albumin died compared with 22% given standard care alone over 11 months.
People with very severe (end-stage) cirrhosis develop various complications including a build-up of fluid in the abdomen (ascites).
This is the first large trial to study the effects of long-term albumin infusions. In addition to improved survival, albumin also reduced hosp...
A reminder that too much oxygen increases mortality in acutely ill adults
In acutely ill adults, liberal use of oxygen supplementation is found to increase the risk of death compared with more conservative oxygen strategies. More liberal oxygen therapy increases patient mortality in hospital by about 11 deaths amongst every 1,000 people exposed. Deaths also increase after 30 days follow-up, without improving other important health outcomes, such as disability, infection or length of hospital stay.
Oxygen is routinely used for acutely ill patients and is widely consid...
Self-monitoring improves control of high blood pressure compared with GP monitoring alone
Allowing patients who have inadequately controlled high blood pressure to monitor their own blood pressure at home helps their GPs to optimise their management. Patients who self-monitor and visit or talk to their GP when needed for medication adjustments achieve 4mmHg lower systolic blood pressure over 12 months compared with those relying only on the measurements made by a GP without self-monitoring.
Effects are similar if patients write down their measurements to send to the GP or do so via ...
Mesh repair of small umbilical hernias reduces recurrence compared to sutures
Repairing small umbilical hernias with surgical mesh rather than sutures reduces the chance of the hernia returning. Complications such as wound infection and pain are not affected by the type of repair.
Adults with umbilical hernias need surgery to prevent serious bowel complications. There are no guidelines about how to best to treat them. In practice, larger hernias tend to be repaired with mesh, while smaller ones are repaired with sutures. This trial of adults with umbilical hernias of 1 t...
Adding the extra antibiotic rifampicin did not improve cure rates after sepsis
Adding the antibiotic rifampicin did not improve cure rates or reduce deaths for people with bacterial blood infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It increased the risk of adverse reactions requiring a change in treatment and the chances of drug interactions.
This NIHR-funded trial is the largest to date on adding rifampicin to standard antibiotic therapy. The study included 770 people in 29 UK hospitals. Half were assigned to 14 days of treatment with rifampicin on top of their existing ...