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NIHR Signal Measles vaccine still effective if given to infants under nine months old
A first vaccination dose against measles is a safe and somewhat effective option if given to infants earlier than usual, and before the age of nine months. However, vaccine effectiveness does increase when administered at older ages, as currently. Two doses of measles-containing vaccines are recommended as part of a childhood immunisation programme. In countries with ongoing measles transmission, the first dose (MCV1) is recommended at nine months. In the UK, the MCV1 is recommended at 12 month...
NIHR Signal Intravenous antibiotics, administered over 3 hours, are linked to lower death rates in sepsis
The risk of death in adults with sepsis was 30% lower when each dose of antibiotic was given intravenously over three hours compared to a bolus or less than 60 minutes. This systematic review included adults on intensive care units with a range of ages, severity of sepsis and other symptoms. A variety of antibiotics of the anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam class were used in the trials. These included carbapenems, penicillins and cephalosporins. In the UK, current guidance for intravenous use of th...
NIHR Signal Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection
It may be feasible to use procalcitonin blood levels to guide antibiotic treatment for adults in hospital with a suspected chest infection. By measuring procalcitonin, an indicator of bacterial infection, clinicians could review their diagnosis earlier. This reduced antibiotic exposure by 2.5 days with fewer adverse effects and also less mortality. About 14 extra people in every 1,000 who had their management guided by the blood test would be expected to survive the first month, compared with t...
NIHR Signal Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections
Antibiotic stewardship programmes could halve the number of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with unguided prescribing. Combining these programmes with hand hygiene, such as washing hands with soap and water and using alcohol-based hand-rubs, could reduce antibiotic resistance further. Bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is increasing, and for some conditions, there aren’t enough new antibiotics available to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. ...
NIHR Signal Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment
Use of electronic pill bottles that record when they are opened and follow-up discussion of the printed readouts with nurses improved HIV outcomes. It is thought that patients became more reliable in taking the medication, which can have complicated scheduling. Overall, the HIV virus in the blood and the risk of treatment failure were lower in the group of patients who had access to this intervention compared to regular care. In addition to being more effective, the programme also reduced the e...
NIHR Signal Laminar airflow in surgery might not reduce surgical site infections
The type of theatre ventilation system used during hip and knee replacement, abdominal or vascular surgery has no effect on the rate of surgical site infections. Prevention of surgical site infection is a complex area with many potential targets for action. So decisions relating to commissioning or decommissioning these systems will need to consider the totality of the evidence alongside the costs. This systematic review included 12 observational studies comparing wound infection rates followin...
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