Alternative sedative reduces the risk of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery
The sedative drug dexmedetomidine can reduce the risk of acute kidney injury when given during non-emergency cardiac surgery. Trial participants who received dexmedetomidine were a third less likely to develop acute kidney injury than those receiving placebo or other treatments. There was no difference in mortality or length of hospital stay.
This systematic review identified 10 studies of 1,575 participants. Surgical procedures included coronary artery bypass grafting with or without valve sur...
Oral ibuprofen may be an option for closing patent ductus arteriosus in premature babies
A high dose of oral ibuprofen was more likely to close a patent ductus arteriosus in premature babies when compared with standard doses of intravenous ibuprofen or indometacin.
Before birth, a baby's lungs aren't needed for breathing. Most blood bypasses the lungs through a large vessel called the ductus arteriosus directly from the pulmonary artery into the aorta to supply the main circulation. Once born, blood flows through the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus usually closes in the fi...
Balance of long-term benefits and risks of caesarean delivery explained
Caesarean delivery has immediate known benefits and risks for those women who need help in childbirth. This review measures the long-term outcomes for the mothers’ health, the links to a higher risk of childhood illness and the chance of problems with future pregnancies.
The large review of 80 studies from high-income countries used data from nearly 30 million women and compared caesarean section with vaginal delivery. Caesarean delivery was associated with a lower risk of urinary inconti...
Aspirin may be a follow-on option to prevent blood clots, starting five days after hip or knee surgery
In a recent trial, switching to low-dose aspirin was just as effective at preventing blood clots after joint replacement surgery as continuing the anti-clotting drug rivaroxaban. Six per 1,000 people taking aspirin experienced a blood clot, compared with seven per 1,000 taking rivaroxaban. Three to five per 1,000 patients experienced major bleeding with either drug.
Rivaroxaban or similar drugs are usually prescribed for two or five weeks after knee or hip surgery, respectively, to reduce the r...
Mesh repair of small umbilical hernias reduces recurrence compared to sutures
Repairing small umbilical hernias with surgical mesh rather than sutures reduces the chance of the hernia returning. Complications such as wound infection and pain are not affected by the type of repair.
Adults with umbilical hernias need surgery to prevent serious bowel complications. There are no guidelines about how to best to treat them. In practice, larger hernias tend to be repaired with mesh, while smaller ones are repaired with sutures. This trial of adults with umbilical hernias of 1 t...
Redesigning oral surgery with enhanced primary dental care, electronic referral and triage may save overall costs
An electronic referral system including consultant-led triage and an advanced oral surgery service in primary care results in fewer people requiring oral surgery in hospital. It comes at a lower overall cost than the previous arrangement. About two-thirds of patients could be treated safely in enhanced primary settings rather than hospital.
This NIHR-funded study implemented several changes, an electronic referral system which standardised and improved the level of information provided in refer...
Physiotherapy education before major abdominal surgery reduces lung complications
A physiotherapy session before planned abdominal surgery, explaining the importance of breathing exercises and sitting out of bed as soon after surgery as possible, halves the risk of pneumonia.
This trial compared the physiotherapy session with usual care which was provided to all 432 participants. This consisted of a leaflet given in the pre-operative outpatient clinic outlining the exercises, and physiotherapy input in the days after surgery. Just seven people would need to receive the addit...
Waiting at home after inducing labour mechanically may be an option for low-risk women
Maternal or fetal complications, following the insertion of a balloon catheter to induce labour, are rare. Pain or discomfort was most common affecting around 1 in 400 women. Balloon displacement, bleeding or abnormal fetal heart rate affected less than 1 in 1,000.
The catheter is a device inserted through the cervix, where inflated balloons on the end of a tube put pressure on the cervix helping it to “ripen” and start contractions. Prostaglandin drugs are the current recommended i...
Short-duration dual antiplatelet treatment is possible for older people receiving drug-coated stents
Drug-eluting stents are more effective than bare-metal stents for preventing repeat procedures to open narrowed heart arteries in older adults with coronary heart disease. In this trial both types of stents were used alongside short courses of dual antiplatelet medication, outcomes for those receiving drug-eluting stents were improved with no difference in bleeding complications or rates of in-stent clots.
This multi-centre European study tested 1,200 people aged 75 years or older. Duration of ...
A surgical procedure for shoulder pain is less effective than previously thought
An increasingly common surgical procedure for shoulder pain, subacromial decompression, was only slightly more effective than no treatment. In the first trial of this sort, improvements in pain and function following decompression or arthroscopy (a placebo surgery) did not reach a threshold of clinical importance compared with people allocated to no treatment at all.
This NIHR-funded study involved 313 people with shoulder pain that had not responded to physiotherapy and a steroid injection. Th...