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NIHR Signal Fewer wound hernias occur if mesh is used to reinforce abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery
Mesh reinforcement may result in patients developing fewer hernias at the incision site after aortic aneurysm surgery. This type of hernia is a common complication of midline (vertical) incisions and can cause pain and restrict everyday activities. Although using mesh was linked with fewer incisional hernias, this systematic review could not determine with any certainty whether this led to fewer later operations on the hernia. Reoperation carries extra risk, especially in people who have had an...
NIHR Signal Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) surgery more beneficial for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms than open repair
EVAR surgery to repair a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm had a slightly better survival rate after three years than open repair surgery. The survival benefit in this trial wasn’t apparent 30 days after surgery, but those having EVAR did recover more quickly and went home sooner. This NIHR-funded study also found that EVAR is likely to be more cost-effective. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a swelling in the main artery that runs from the heart through the abdomen. If it bursts, there i...
NIHR Signal Music can reduce pain and anxiety following surgery
Recorded music played before, during or after surgery in adults reduces self-reported post-operative pain and anxiety, compared with usual care. The average effect is equivalent to a reduction in anxiety of 21 percentage points and a 10 percentage point reduction in pain within a few days of surgery. It is thought that placebo and distraction effects probably play a role, but in this review music still improved pain when used for patients under a general anaesthetic. Nearly two-thirds of patie...
NIHR Signal Outpatient video consultations are feasible but challenging for the NHS
Video consultations may be a useful substitute for face-to-face consultations for some hospital outpatient appointments. This NIHR funded study provided insights into the conditions which made them better. When these practical and clinical conditions are met, video consultations can be safe and effective and are liked by staff and patients. But there are challenges in embedding new technology in routine practice, and these challenges may have been under-estimated. This high-quality implementati...
NIHR Signal Varicose vein injections help new venous leg ulcers heal
For patients with leg ulcers caused by varicose veins, early intervention to treat the veins results in faster healing of ulcers than standard compression therapy alone. Researchers studied 450 people with open venous leg ulcers of 6 weeks to 6 months duration and varicose veins. Those assigned to have their veins treated within two weeks had healed ulcers in an average of 56 days, compared with 82 days for those who had treatment deferred for six months, or until after the ulcer had healed. I...
NIHR Signal Enhanced recovery programmes after stomach cancer surgery reduce hospital stay without increasing complications
Enhanced recovery programmes reduce length of hospital stay and associated healthcare costs after stomach cancer surgery, with no impact on short-term mortality or post-operative complications. They also improvepost-operative quality of life. The enhanced recovery approach includes a range of components designed to help people to recover more quickly and have better outcomes after surgery. These include optimising people's health preoperatively, attention to detail during anaesthesia and su...
NIHR Signal Gallbladder surgery through a single-incision is more risky than a multiple incision technique
Single-incision keyhole gallbladder removal surgery carries increased risk of adverse events, such as puncturing the gallbladder, compared with the more standard multiple-incision procedures. However, in experienced hands, there may be benefits such as reduced pain and less scarring after the operation. Current guidance recognises that using a single incision for laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more complex than using multiple incisions. The risks and benefits of all options available for pat...
NIHR Signal Alternative sedative reduces the risk of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery
The sedative drug dexmedetomidine can reduce the risk of acute kidney injury when given during non-emergency cardiac surgery. Trial participants who received dexmedetomidine were a third less likely to develop acute kidney injury than those receiving placebo or other treatments. There was no difference in mortality or length of hospital stay. This systematic review identified 10 studies of 1,575 participants. Surgical procedures included coronary artery bypass grafting with or without valve sur...
NIHR Signal Oral ibuprofen may be an option for closing patent ductus arteriosus in premature babies
A high dose of oral ibuprofen was more likely to close a patent ductus arteriosus in premature babies when compared with standard doses of intravenous ibuprofen or indometacin. Before birth, a baby's lungs aren't needed for breathing. Most blood bypasses the lungs through a large vessel called the ductus arteriosus directly from the pulmonary artery into the aorta to supply the main circulation. Once born, blood flows through the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus usually closes in the fi...
NIHR Signal Balance of long-term benefits and risks of caesarean delivery explained
Caesarean delivery has immediate known benefits and risks for those women who need help in childbirth. This review measures the long-term outcomes for the mothers’ health, the links to a higher risk of childhood illness and the chance of problems with future pregnancies. The large review of 80 studies from high-income countries used data from nearly 30 million women and compared caesarean section with vaginal delivery. Caesarean delivery was associated with a lower risk of urinary inconti...
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