Boosting omega-3 fatty acid intake is unlikely to prevent type 2 diabetes
Increasing the intake of polyunsaturated fats in the diet with supplements of omega-3 fatty acids, for example, is unlikely to affect people’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, this review only looked at the effect of supplements on diabetes, not wider health.
This large systematic review included 83 long-term trials comparing higher and lower intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fats in healthy adults and those with existing diabetes. It found no...
Significant risk of another thrombosis remains if anticoagulation is stopped
Unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis in the leg and pulmonary embolism, are clots within veins that occur spontaneously in people without risk factors and are treated with anticoagulant drugs. If those drugs are stopped after three months or more, the risk of another clot appears to be on average 10% in the first year, 16% by two years, 25% by five years and 36% by 10 years.
This systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 studies included a total of 7,515 patie...
Long-term macrolide antibiotics reduce risk of exacerbations of bronchiectasis
People with bronchiectasis (not caused by cystic fibrosis) who take long-term macrolide antibiotics are around 50% less likely to experience acute worsening of symptoms like cough and sputum production (an exacerbation) than people taking a placebo.
Bronchiectasis guidelines only recommend preventative macrolide antibiotics in people with frequent exacerbations who do not carry a bacterium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This review pooled data from three trials in 341 patients where erythromycin or ...
Short-term dual antiplatelet treatment may be best for most patients after receiving a drug-eluting stent
For patients who have had a drug-eluting stent inserted into the coronary arteries, there is no difference in mortality or cardiovascular outcomes between the standard 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy and shorter six-month courses. Longer courses above 12 months increased risk of bleeding and non-cardiac death compared with short courses.
It has been debated whether longer treatment might decrease complications, but similarly, it is unclear if shorter treatment might be as effective while red...
Better strategies are needed to reduce preventable patient harm in healthcare
About 6% of patients in healthcare settings internationally experience harm that could have been prevented. Around one in eight of these cases result in severe harm, causing permanent disability or death.
Drug errors, therapeutic management incidents and incidents involving invasive clinical procedures are the most common causes of preventable patient harm. Higher rates of harm were seen in intensive care and surgical departments than in general hospital settings.
This NIHR-funded review poole...
C-reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for COPD flare-ups
Use of a rapid C-reactive protein (CRP) blood test in general practice for people with a flare-up of COPD reduces the proportion who take antibiotics over the next month by about 20 percentage points compared with usual care alone. The reduction in antibiotic use does not lead to worse health, more visits to the doctor or greater need for antibiotics later on.
Flare-ups of COPD can be caused by infections of the airways or environmental triggers, and cause about 115,000 admissions to hospital e...
Enhanced communication and staff training could improve the experience of maternity services for asylum-seeking women
Pregnant asylum seekers experience significant barriers to accessing maternity services in the UK. A review found that these barriers often relate to language differences and practical challenges associated with their status. Provision of interpreter services and training for health care professionals could improve maternity support for these women.
Pregnant women seeking asylum have often experienced significant trauma. Many arrive in the country having received no maternity care and experienc...
Diet and physical activity interventions targeting children and youth have different, yet small, effects on preventing obesity
Obesity prevention interventions which include both diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity in pre-school children. Once at school, physical activity appears to be more effective for weight loss than diet alone. Resulting weight loss form any intervention, if any, has been very small with unclear benefits to the individual or population.
This NIHR-supported Cochrane systematic review pooled the results of 153 global randomised-control trials (sevenfrom the UK) aiming to preven...
Text message reminders increase attendance at NHS health checks
Sending text messages reminding people to book their NHS health check following their invitation letter increases attendance. There is little evidence to support pre-notification text messages telling people an invitation would soon be sent.
NHS health checks are offered to adults aged 40 to 74 years. Identification and management of cardiovascular risk factors has been shown to save lives. Yet only half of adults attend a check when it is offered. This trial conducted across general practices ...