Routine use of progesterone does not prevent miscarriage
Progesterone did not affect the chance of live birth among women presenting with vaginal bleeding in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Live birth rates were 72% with placebo and 75% with progesterone, which is not a clinically or statistically important difference.
Progesterone has been prescribed for threatened miscarriage in some centres since the 1950s, but there has been poor evidence for its use. NICE recently highlighted this as a priority area for research asking for large, robust trials ...
Insights into the transfer between children’s and adults’ services for young people with selected long-term conditions
How young people with type 1 diabetes, autistic spectrum disorder and cerebral palsy experience the transition to adult services depends on their condition and locality. Adult and children’s services need to work together to ensure they are offering young people the sources of support and resilience they need.
This NIHR-funded study found that children with type 1 diabetes were more likely to receive help shown to aid transition. For example, around two-thirds said they had met a member o...
Meaningful increases in physical activity levels after cancer can be sustained for three months or more
People who have had cancer, who are able to keep mobile, can benefit from interventions aimed at increasing physical activity. Being active regularly is already known to improve health and may also reduce the risk of cancer returning and improve life expectancy.
This NIHR-funded review looked at what kinds of exercise interventions can lead to behaviour change in adult cancer survivors. Researchers specifically looked at the components that are linked to continued physical activity at least thr...
Using both nicotine patches and gum together improves the chances of quitting smoking
Using a nicotine patch together with a fast-acting type of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) such as gum or lozenges improves smoking cessation rates compared to using only a single type of NRT. Higher-dose nicotine patches are also more effective than lower dose ones, this NIHR-funded review suggests.
A previous Cochrane systematic review found that NRT boosts people’s chances of successfully quitting smoking compared to none, but it was unclear which types, doses and schedules were mos...
Telephone or internet delivered talking therapy can alleviate irritable bowel symptoms
People with irritable bowel syndrome may find cognitive behavioural therapy (a talking therapy) delivered via telephone or internet improves their symptoms. Compared with usual care alone, both interventions were shown to be more effective, with telephone delivery resulting in greater symptom reduction and web-based therapy being more cost-effective.
Irritable bowel symptoms can persist long-term and have a major impact on the quality of life. Stress is one of the known triggers. Cognitive beha...
Antiretroviral treatment can reduce the risk of HIV transmission between male partners to ‘zero’
The risk of transmission of HIV between gay couples when the HIV-positive partner is taking antiretroviral treatment that successfully suppresses the viral load is ‘effectively zero.’
A study of men from 14 European countries, including the UK, found no cases of transmission of HIV from an HIV-positive partner taking antiretroviral therapy to an HIV-negative partner, as long as the viral load of the HIV-positive partner remained undetectable or very low.
The study recorded an avera...
New insights into how fatigue affects the lives of people on dialysis
Feelings of profound and relentless exhaustion while undergoing haemodialysis impact on patients’ ability to lead a normal life. This overwhelming fatigue is different from the immediate symptoms of post-dialysis fatigue observable in a clinical setting and can pervade all aspects of a patient’s life.
This review of 65 international studies, including 1,713 participants, found that patients can feel unable to maintain fulfilling relationships and are vulnerable to misunderstandings ...
More than 50% of hip replacements appear to last 25 years
Data from national registries and large case series showthat in those countries, around 85% of total hip replacements last for 15 years, with 58% lasting for 25 years. This means that those hip replacements have lasted last longer than was first thought. It is good news for an ageing population, as it should mean that the chances of needing a second hip operation are reducing.
However, it is not clear how directly relevant the results of this study are to the UK. The NIHR-funded study didn&rsqu...
Psychological therapies may improve parenting skills in parents of children with chronic illness
Psychological therapies appear to show promise in helping improve self-reported parenting behaviour of parents of children and adolescents with cancer, chronic pain, diabetes or traumatic brain injury.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and problem-solving therapy (PST) appear particularly valuable in supporting this. Psychological therapies also seemed beneficial in improving the mental health of parents who have children with cancer and chronic pain, but not in studies of children with diabe...
More than 80% of total knee replacements can last for 25 years
Large data sets from national registries and case series show that about 82% of total knee replacements and 70% of partial (unicompartmental) knee replacements last for 25 years.
This NIHR-funded review of that data is the first to demonstrate longer-term effectiveness of these procedures. This means that the operation, which aims to relieve pain for osteoarthritis, may not need to be delayed to reduce the chance of a patient needing further surgery at a later date. It is an encouraging finding...