Diet and physical activity interventions targeting children and youth have different, yet small, effects on preventing obesity
Obesity prevention interventions which include both diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity in pre-school children. Once at school, physical activity appears to be more effective for weight loss than diet alone. Resulting weight loss form any intervention, if any, has been very small with unclear benefits to the individual or population.
This NIHR-supported Cochrane systematic review pooled the results of 153 global randomised-control trials (sevenfrom the UK) aiming to preven...
Exercise training improves physical capacity after lung cancer surgery
People who receive exercise training following surgery for lung cancer can walk about 57 metres further in six minutes than controls who did not exercise. After surgery like thisto remove all or part of a lung, people typically manage about 500 metres in six minutes on the test, and anything above 20 metres is considered a worthwhile improvement. Exercise also increases leg strength and quality of life.
A decline in physical fitness is a common and debilitating effect of lung resection. Exerci...
Robot-assisted training offers little useful improvement in severe arm weakness and function after stroke
People who have severe arm weakness following stroke have no better function after robot-assisted training or enhanced upper limb therapy than those who have usual NHS care.
This large multicentre trial, funded by the NIHR, randomised 770 adult stroke patients to robot-assisted training using the MIT-Manus robotic gym, to an enhanced therapy programme or to usual NHS care. All three groups had improved arm function after three months, with no significant differences between the groups.
Cardiac rehabilitation for heart failure can improve quality of life and fitness
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may improve the quality of life and physical fitness of people with heart failure but does not reduce their risk of being admitted to hospital or dying. This is irrespective of factors such as age and ethnicity.
This NIHR study summarised the outcome data from trials assessing exercise programmes for over 4,000 people with heart failure. At an individual level, the review looked for any improvements in physical symptoms and the psychological impacts of livi...
Non-invasive brain stimulation may improve outcomes for children with brain injury
Non-invasive brain stimulation may help improve limb function in children with motor disorders following brain injury, such as cerebral palsy or one-sided weakness. This is a relatively safe procedure where pads placed on the head deliver electric or magnetic currents, which are thought to activate the motor areas of the brain.
This review evaluated 14 trials, including 306 children comparing two types of brain stimulation with a control group. It found that these types of stimulation may impro...
Pulmonary rehabilitation may modestly improve anxiety and depression in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves psychological symptoms modestly, compared with no intervention. Depression improves by about 2.5 points, and anxiety by 2.2 points on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (range 0 to 21).
This review of 10 trials is the first to show that pulmonary rehabilitation – already known to improve quality of life and exercise capacity - may also improve anxiety and depression, which are common in people with C...
Meaningful increases in physical activity levels after cancer can be sustained for three months or more
People who have had cancer, who are able to keep mobile, can benefit from interventions aimed at increasing physical activity. Being active regularly is already known to improve health and may also reduce the risk of cancer returning and improve life expectancy.
This NIHR-funded review looked at what kinds of exercise interventions can lead to behaviour change in adult cancer survivors. Researchers specifically looked at the components that are linked to continued physical activity at least thr...
Getting hospital patients up and moving shortens stay and improves fitness
Interventions to encourage patients admitted to hospital for medical problems to get out of bed and walk around increases their mobility, without increasing their risk of falls.
Older inpatients frequently spend much of their time in bed, which risks a loss of physical condition and muscle tone. This can make it harder for them to manage independently at home, and may contribute to delayed discharge.
A review summarised thirteen trials from the UK, Europe and Australia, involving 2,703 adults ...
Keyhole surgery may be better than physiotherapy for hip impingement
Adults with painful restriction of movement of their hip had greater improvements in their symptoms after arthroscopy (keyhole surgery) than those who had physiotherapy.
This NIHR-funded study included 222 people with hip pain and limited movement due to femoro-acetabular (hip) impingement but without a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Their average age was 36 years. Half of the people who had surgery had significant benefit compared with a third of those having physiotherapy.
NICE has recommended...
Long-term exercise programmes reduce falls and injuries in older adults
Older people who participate in year-long exercise programmes fall less and are less likely to be injured if they do fall. Exercise does not increase or decrease their risk of hospitalisation.
The people aged 60 or over (average age 73 years) who were included in this review took part in supervised training programmes. Typically, about half of people at this age can fall at least once a year. These programmes combined aerobic, strength and balance training, exercising at a moderate intensity fo...