Diet and exercise can reduce the risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy
Diet and exercise are effective ways of preventing the development of diabetes during pregnancy, known as gestational diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is becoming more common and is associated with poorer outcomes for mother and baby. Diet, physical activity and weight are modifiable risk factors, but trials published to date have shown inconsistent results.
This systematic review pooled 47 trials and found that any form of lifestyle intervention reduced the risk of gestational diabetes by 23%, ...
The best dose of aspirin for cardiovascular protection may depend on body weight
Low dose aspirin only appears to be effective at preventing stroke or heart attack for people weighing less than 70kg, while higher doses are better for people who weigh over 70kg.
Researchers analysed data from 13 trials of aspirin for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, totalling over 115,000 participants. They found that 75 to 100mg aspirin only benefitted people who weighed less than 70kg, while only those who weighed 70kg or more benefited from doses of 325mg or above...
Fish oil supplements do not reduce cardiovascular deaths in people with diabetes without existing vascular disease
Omega-3 fatty acid supplements make no difference to cardiovascular outcomes in people with diabetes but without established cardiovascular disease. Serious vascular events like heart attack, stroke or deaths from these occurred in about 10% of people regardless of whether they took daily omega-3 or placebo capsules for seven years.
The ASCEND studyis a large UK trial assessing primary cardiovascular prevention for people with any type of diabetes. A companion publication assesses the use of as...
The benefits and harms of aspirin for people with type 2 diabetes are finely balanced
Daily aspirin reduced the risk of serious vascular events among people with diabetes, while increasing the risk of major bleeding to a similar extent. Aspirin prevented one person in every 100 from having a heart attack or stroke over seven years, but an additional person per 100 experienced a major bleed.
The ASCEND study is one of three large placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of 100mg daily aspirin for primary prevention in people without established cardiovascular disease. ...
Insulin pumps offer little value over multiple injections for children at the onset of diabetes
Young people newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes achieve similar blood glucose control by 12 months if they are treated with multiple daily insulin injections or continuously via an insulin pump. Adverse events are rare and occurat similar rates. Pumps are more expensive with no clear benefit to quality of life.
Both regimens are used in the management of type 1 diabetes, and the number of children using insulin pumps is rising. This NIHR-funded trial suggests that at an additional cost of &po...
‘Artificial pancreas’ improves glucose control in hospital patients with type 2 diabetes
Closed-loop insulin pumps, which continuously monitor blood glucose and administer insulin accordingly, can improve blood glucose control among patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to hospital for non-critical care. Those using the system spent about six hours longer in the target range, and this could hasten their recovery and reduce staff workload.
The number of hospitalised patients with type 2 diabetes is increasing. Glucose control often worsens during illness. Closed-loop pumps have bee...
Self-monitoring of blood glucose provides no important benefit for most people with type 2 diabetes
Patients with type 2 diabetes who monitor their blood glucose themselves may see small, short-term improvements in blood sugar control. This is not enough to be clinically important or outweigh the costs and personal inconvenience of long-term self-testing.
Self-monitoring is a well-established strategy for type 1 diabetes and for people with type 2 who need insulin. The benefit for all people with type 2 is debatable. This review pooled 24 randomised controlled trials comparing self-monitoring...
Text messages improve diabetes self-management and blood sugar control
In adults with poorly controlled diabetes, text messages offering advice and support can improve self-management and blood sugar control.
This trial included 366 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in New Zealand. An automated system delivered individually tailored text messages to participants over a nine-month period to support self-management of blood sugar. The control group received usual care, comparable to that in the UK.
The text message group had a small reduction in blood sugar lev...
Outpatient video consultations are feasible but challenging for the NHS
Video consultations may be a useful substitute for face-to-face consultations for some hospital outpatient appointments. This NIHR funded study provided insights into the conditions which made them better. When these practical and clinical conditions are met, video consultations can be safe and effective and are liked by staff and patients. But there are challenges in embedding new technology in routine practice, and these challenges may have been under-estimated.
This high-quality implementati...
Hospital admission rates and costs increase in line with BMI
Each 2kg/m2 rise in body mass index (BMI) above the normal-weight threshold in women aged 55-79 leads to a 5% rise in annual hospital admissions and 7% rise in healthcare costs. In England, £662 million of the annual hospital admission costs in 2013 could be attributed to overweight or obesity in women of this age group.
This large study, partly funded by the NIHR, looked at over one million women participating in the NHS breast cancer screening programme. Five-year data on hospital admis...