Diagnosis of delirium in hospitals can be improved by the 4 A’s test
A new shorter test for delirium appears helpful in assessing older people in hospital who may have the condition. A normal score on the 4 A’s test effectively rules out delirium while an abnormal score is reasonably useful for detecting the condition. People detected by the test would still need a full assessment to confirm the diagnosis.
Delirium is common in older people who have been hospitalised, but it can go undiagnosed. To help combat this, the 4 A’s test was developed as an ...
Antimicrobial central venous catheters do not reduce infections in pre-term babies
Central venous catheters (CVCs) impregnated with antimicrobial agents are no better than standard CVCs for avoiding bloodstream infection in pre-term babies.
This NIHR-funded trial compared peripherally inserted CVCs that had been impregnated with a combination of the antifungal miconazole and the broad-spectrum antibiotic rifampicin, against standard non-antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs for preterm babies in intensive care. Rates of bloodstream infections were similar in both groups, and no diff...
Training for clinical competence and resilience reduced job strain among intensive care nurses in France
A five-day educational course showed potential to reduce work-based stress and burnout among nurses working in intensive care units in France. The study conducted in multiple adult intensive care units aimed to identify the effects of an intensive, continuing medical education program on occupational stress.
The course focussed on nursing theory, role-play and debriefing sessions. Six months after attending the programme, intensive care unit nurses showed reduced levels of job strain compared t...
Early cooling provides no benefit following traumatic brain injury
Deliberate cooling (prophylactic hypothermia) in the early management of traumatic brain injury does not improve neurological outcomes at six months. Inducing hypothermia may also increase the risk of pneumonia.
Hypothermia (33-35oC) is sometimes induced to try and limit brain damage in people with severe head injuries. However, evidence for its safety and effectiveness has been mixed. A 2015 trial (Eurotherm 3235) found that therapeutic hypothermia, for adults with raised intracranial pressur...
Premature babies have fewer complications if a lower platelet count is accepted
Fewer premature babies die or have major bleeding if platelet transfusions are withheld until platelet numbers drop to a lower level. At 28 days, death or new major bleeding occurred in 19% of neonates transfused when they had less than 25,000/mm3 platelets compared to 26% of neonates transfused when they had less than 50,000/mm3 platelets.
This trial included 660 premature babies with low platelet counts.
The results suggest that in the absence of actual bleeding, platelet transfusions may be...
Benzodiazepines may increase length of stay and chance of delirium in intensive care
Benzodiazepines given during mechanical ventilation in intensive care could increase the risk of a longer hospital stay and delirium compared to other sedatives.
A range of sedatives are used to reduce psychological distress in critically ill patients, but prior to this study, it was not clear which drugs are most effective. This systematic review looked at all the evidence from randomised controlled trials for the effectiveness of six different types of sedative used in people given mechanical...
Supporting families of those in intensive care improved family satisfaction but didn’t reduce family distress
A multicomponent support intervention for family members of patients in intensive care didn’t reduce their anxiety, depression or distress around the overall experience. However, it increased satisfaction with the quality of staff communication and delivery of care.
Family members of critically unwell patients on intensive care often need to be involved in care decisions. Yet they may feel unsupported and bewildered in the process. This intervention, delivered in five US intensive care un...
High-flow oxygen therapy may have a role in treating infants with more severe bronchiolitis
A randomised controlled trial of 1,472 infants with bronchiolitis found that more children improved when started on high-flow oxygen therapy than with standard oxygen therapy.
Those who failed to improve on standard therapy were switched to high flow oxygen. Most then improved - overall, similar numbers were transferred to intensive care. There was also no difference between the groups in the proportion of infants needing intubation, length of time on oxygen therapy or days spent in hospital.
A reminder that too much oxygen increases mortality in acutely ill adults
In acutely ill adults, liberal use of oxygen supplementation is found to increase the risk of death compared with more conservative oxygen strategies. More liberal oxygen therapy increases patient mortality in hospital by about 11 deaths amongst every 1,000 people exposed. Deaths also increase after 30 days follow-up, without improving other important health outcomes, such as disability, infection or length of hospital stay.
Oxygen is routinely used for acutely ill patients and is widely consid...