Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children
Cartoons delivered on laptops, projectors or 3D goggles with sound can help distract anxious children who fear dental procedures. Dental anxiety can prevent children from attending the dentist for care, and this type of distraction could offer a useful tool to help them.
This review looked at a range of audiovisual approaches tested in trials of healthy children receiving dental treatment under local anaesthetic. The children were assessed for physiological measures related to emotional state (...
Cannabis derivative may reduce seizures in some severe drug-resistant epilepsies, but adverse events increase
In people with some types of severe, drug-resistant epilepsy, adding cannabidiol to their treatment may reduce seizure frequency and improve quality of life compared with a placebo. The likelihood of being free from seizures for more than a year was still low, about 8%. However, an additional 12% of people had serious adverse effects with cannabidiol.
These findings come from a systematic review, which included six trials in 555 patients. Most were children and adolescents with rare forms of ep...
Balance of long-term benefits and risks of caesarean delivery explained
Caesarean delivery has immediate known benefits and risks for those women who need help in childbirth. This review measures the long-term outcomes for the mothers’ health, the links to a higher risk of childhood illness and the chance of problems with future pregnancies.
The large review of 80 studies from high-income countries used data from nearly 30 million women and compared caesarean section with vaginal delivery. Caesarean delivery was associated with a lower risk of urinary inconti...
Vaccination likely to reduce influenza in healthy children
In healthy children aged two to 16, vaccines are likely to reduce laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and may reduce the risk of influenza-like illness compared to placebo. Seven children need to receive the live vaccine to prevent one case of confirmed influenza. Twenty children need to be vaccinated to prevent one case of influenza-like illness.
This updated Cochrane review included 41 trials of either live attenuated (weakened) or inactivated influenza vaccines, with over 200,000 partici...
Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children
Intravenous lorazepam is as effective as intravenous diazepam for stopping children’s tonic-clonic seizures in hospital. Lorazepam also results in fewer breathing problems than diazepam. Giving antiepileptic drugs intravenously generally stops seizures more quickly than giving the drugs buccally (in the cheek), intranasally (in the nose) or rectally. However, this effect can be cancelled out if administering the drug into the veins takes too long.
Two of the 18 included trials were carrie...
Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs
Helping children and parents to manage long-term conditions like asthma may reduce their need for emergency care, and is unlikely to reduce children’s quality of life.
This NIHR review found that structured professional help with self-care, including online support, provision of care plans, case management and face-to-face education, was linked to small increases in quality of life scores and fewer emergency department visits. However, there was no clear evidence that supported self-care ...
Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia
Post-operative vomiting is common in children. One strategy is to use an intravenous anaesthetic, which is known to cause lower rates of sickness than inhaled anaesthetics. There are disadvantages to this though, such as the need for injections before a child is asleep, slowing of the heart and difficulty in monitoring depth of the anaesthetic.
This review of four trials included 558 children who had an operation to correct a squint. A third of children in each anaesthetic group had post-operat...
A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain
The Healthy Lifestyle Programme delivered to 9-10-year-old school children did not reduce their weight over the course of two years. Around a third remained overweight or obese, the same as in schools that followed the standard syllabus.
This trial, funded by the NIHR, assigned schools across Devon to follow a lifestyle programme in Year five. The comprehensive curriculum included drama and activity workshops, personal goal setting and parental involvement.
Children made better food choices, b...
Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children
Children who eat takeaways once or more each week have more body fat and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) “bad” cholesterol levels than those who never or hardly ever eat them. Their diets were also higher in fat and lower in protein and calcium.
This cross-sectional study looked in depth at eating habits and risk markers for coronary heart disease, obesity and diabetes in 2,529 children in England. Though this type of study can only show an association between takeaways and ris...
Parental training improves a child’s disruptive behaviours regardless of socio-economic disadvantage or ethnicity
Children from low-income families, or with an unemployed or single parent, benefitted as much as did economically advantaged groups. The Incredible Years programme worked better for children with more severe behaviour problems or a parent with depression.
This NIHR-funded review pooled individual-level data for pre-school and primary aged children with persistent disruptive behaviours. The 14 European trials, including eight studies in the UK, took place in diverse settings including schools, c...