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NIHR Signal Adding low dose theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids does not reduce COPD exacerbations
Taking low-dose theophylline tablets in addition to inhaled corticosteroids did not significantly reduce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease flare-ups (exacerbations). This NIHR funded study found that people taking the combination and those taking an inhaled steroid had the same number of exacerbations - just over two per year. People who experience frequent exacerbations are often prescribed steroid inhalers to reduce inflammation of the airways. Theophylline also helps open up the airways,...
NIHR Signal Antidepressants do not help treat depression in people living with dementia
Antidepressants do not reduce symptoms of depression in people with dementia compared with placebo (dummy pills). Measured 6 to 13 weeks after starting the treatment, there is little or no difference in participants’ symptoms, but an increased chance of unwanted side effects. The review did not identify enough data to determine if antidepressants have an effect in the longer-term. This Cochrane review included randomised controlled trials of any antidepressant drugs compared to placebo. P...
NIHR Signal Home-based cardiac rehabilitation for heart failure has high rates of participation
Home-based cardiac rehabilitation for people with heart failure improves quality of life at 12 months compared with usual care. Among those allocated to rehabilitation, 90% remained in the programme – more than double average attendance rate for hospital-based rehabilitation. The average cost was estimated at £418 per participant which is within the National Health Service tariff for cardiac rehabilitation in England of £477 per patient. This NIHR-funded trial included 216 par...
NIHR Signal People leaving hospital after medical illness do not benefit from extended clot reducing treatment
Taking rivaroxaban after discharge from hospital does not significantly reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism, either blood clots in large veins or of dying from clots travelling to the lungs. People who are hospitalised with conditions such as heart failure and stroke are at an increased risk of blood clots. This risk is further increased by factors such as age, lack of mobility and previous illness or clots. These patients will usually be given anticoagulant treatment to reduce blood clot...
NIHR Signal Pelvic floor muscle training can improve symptoms of urinary incontinence
Two-thirds of women with any type of urinary incontinence who have pelvic floor muscle training see improvement or cure compared with only a third of women who receive no treatment or inactive treatments. It is even more effective for women with stress incontinence, with three-quarters of women reporting improvement or resolution of symptoms, such as episodes of leakage. This systematic review included 31 trials and 1,817 women with any type of incontinence; stress, urgency or mixed urinary inc...
NIHR Signal Benzodiazepines may increase length of stay and chance of delirium in intensive care
Benzodiazepines given during mechanical ventilation in intensive care could increase the risk of a longer hospital stay and delirium compared to other sedatives. A range of sedatives are used to reduce psychological distress in critically ill patients, but prior to this study, it was not clear which drugs are most effective. This systematic review looked at all the evidence from randomised controlled trials for the effectiveness of six different types of sedative used in people given mechanical...
NIHR Signal Complications following hip or knee surgery are more likely for people with long-term illness, but benefits are still worthwhile
People with long-term illness are just as likely to benefit from knee or hip surgery as those without. However, they are more likely to have complications following surgery and to be readmitted within three months. This study reviewed data from 70 studies to determine the chance of short-term harms and long-term benefits linked to 11 different co-existing health conditions (such as diabetes and cancer) following hip and knee replacement. Short-term outcomes included surgical complications, infe...
NIHR Signal Ways of integrating care that better coordinate services may benefit patients
New integrated care models can increase patient satisfaction, perceived quality of care and improve access to services. It is less clear whether there may be effects on hospital admissions, appointments or healthcare costs. Strong leadership and patient engagement are among factors influencing successful implementation. The NHS is undergoing reconfiguration to better coordinate services around patients. This NIHR-funded review looked at the international literature to understand how new care mo...
NIHR Signal People with COPD exacerbations prefer early discharge then treatment at home
People with flare-ups of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) prefer to be managed at home rather than in hospital. Hospital stay was on average four days shorter when people were discharged early to the hospital at home scheme, and there was no noticeable increase in readmissions in this group. This NIHR-funded trial aimed to establish the costs and outcomes of hospital at home compared with staying in hospital for treatment. The findings support current guidance that hospital at home...
NIHR Signal Paracetamol and alcohol are the most common substances taken by young people and rates of poisoning are increasing
The rates of the five most common types of poisoningin young people haveincreased three to five-fold from 1998 to 2014 and is cause for concern. A study including more than 1.7 million young people aged 10 to 24 in the UK found records of 31,509 people who had been treated for poisoning (2% of the total). Where the substance was recorded, 40% of poisonings involved paracetamol, and 33% involved alcohol. Other substances used included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants and op...
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