OBJECTIVES: The management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires complex behavior changes and treatment regimens to achieve optimal outcomes. Interventions including motivational interviewing (MI) have been explored to help patients achieve behavior change and outcomes; this study aimed to explore evidence and gaps in the literature for MI interventions and outcomes in adults with T2D.
METHODS: A modified Cochrane method structured the search strategy among databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and others. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of MI on behavior changeoutcomes and resultant clinical outcomes in adults with T2D.
RESULTS: Of the initial 159 studies identified, 14 were eligible for retention. Behavior targets in the retained studies included dietary changes, physical activity, smoking cessation, and alcohol reduction.
MI had significant impact on some dietary behaviors and on weight loss.
MI intervention structures were heterogeneous across studies; fidelity assessment was infrequent.
CONCLUSION: The effects of MI interventions on outcomes in T2D showed promising results for dietary behaviors. Clinical change outcomes from MI-based interventions were most favorable for weight management in T2D.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Behavior-specific MI interventions may positively influence study outcomes. Assessment of MI intervention fidelity will enhance treatment integrity and claims for validity.