OBJECTIVE: Assess effect of diabetes self-management education and support methods, providers, duration, and contact time on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
METHOD: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, and PsycINFO to December 2013 for interventions which included elements to improve participants' knowledge, skills, and ability to perform self-management activities as well as informed decision-making around goal setting.
RESULTS: This review included 118 unique interventions, with 61.9% reporting significant changes in A1C. Overall mean reduction in A1C was 0.74 and 0.17 for intervention and control groups; an average absolute reduction in A1C of 0.57.
A combination of group and individual engagement results in the largest decreases in A1C (0.88). Contact hours >/=10 were associated with a greater proportion of interventions with significant reduction in A1C (70.3%). In patients with persistently elevated glycemic values (A1C>9), a greater proportion of studies reported statistically significant reduction in A1C (83.9%).
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review found robust data demonstrating that engagement in diabetes self-management education results in a statistically significant decrease in A1C levels.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The data suggest mode of delivery, hours of engagement, and baseline A1C can affect the likelihood of achieving statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in A1C.